# Research

From my earliest contacts with quantum mechanics, as a student, I was greatly interested in this theory, by the singular character of its mathematical formulation, by the cryptic meanings that we guess are incorporated in this formulation and by the problems of interpretation that this theory has raised since its very birth.

*-** The period from 1964 to 1979 **-*

*The period from 1964 to 1979*

Invalidation of two theorems (von Neumann, Wigner) and rejection of Bell's non-locality theorem

My thesis in theoretical physics, supervised by Louis de Broglie, was entitled ‘Étude du caractère complet de la mécanique quantique’ (Study of the completeness of quantum mechanics). Published in 1964 by Gauthier-Villars with a preface by Louis de Broglie, it contained the first proven refutation of von Neumann's theorem, which declared impossible a theory of microstates more complete than quantum mechanics.

My thesis, which was mainly logical in nature, also included epistemological analyses linking quantum formalism to the human processes of conceptualisation. After defending my thesis, I continued my research at the University of Reims, where in 1971 I founded the Laboratory of Quantum Mechanics and Information Structures, which I directed until 1997.

This research took quantum measurement theory a step further and explored how microscopic quantities could be measured with extreme precision using quantum formalism. This exploration led me to Shannon's probability theory and communication theory, which form a logically and epistemologically coherent whole.

Among my post-thesis works, those disproving E.P. Wigner's theorem are notable. Despite this progress, I went through a difficult period during which I struggled to explain the cognitive strategy embodied in quantum formalism and to understand its conceptual status.

This period came to an end in June 1979, when I gave a talk at the Collège de France on Bell's non-locality theorem. My talk crystallised my questions into a clear programme that I have continued to develop ever since, highlighting the need to explore the epistemological foundations of logic and probability, which are crucial to understanding quantum formalism.

*- **The period from 1984 to 1994 **-*

*The period from 1984 to 1994*

## Plot criticisms and constructions conserning quantum mechanics, probability and communications theory, involving epistemological features

From 1979 onwards, my work focused on epistemological questions: what principles underlie the formalisms of quantum mechanics, probability theory and information communications, and how can they be made explicit and standardised? Mathematics remained essential, but my main objective was epistemological and unifying.

I was no longer interested in point-by-point refutation of specific demonstrations. My aim was to structure a conceptualisation that avoided a priori fallacious reasoning. I was seeking to establish a system of norms that would allow free but protected conceptualisation, capable of soundly reconstructing existing conceptual constructs.

The key stages of this approach include:

**Function of opacity:**Between 1979 and 1982, I established a formal relationship between Boltzmann's statistical entropy and Shannon's informational entropy, incorporating a novel methodological stratification.**Probability tree of a microstate:**In 1984, I developed the method of relativised conceptualisation (MCR), highlighting a new probabilistic structure for microstates, distinct from that of Kolmogorov..**Logical structure in quantum formalism**: I have shown that the algebraic structure of quantum propositions is linked to the probabilistic tree structure, thereby unifying the probabilistic and logical conceptualisations.**Quantum formalism as a mathematical calculation with semantic content derived from factuality:**By 1993, I had reformulated quantum mechanics in terms of calculations with semantic content, building an epistemological method for generating consensual knowledge about real entities that are quintessentially unobservable by humans: this was the first scientific method itself for generating scientific knowledge about such entities.

These advances led to a bifurcation in my research: decoding the epistemological organisation underlying quantum mechanics and developing a general conceptualisation method, rooted in physical reality and inspired by the descriptions of microstates in the quantum formalism.

*- **The period from 1994 to *

the present day -

*The period from 1994 to*

the present day

the present day

## Creation and operation of Centre for the Synthesis of a Formalised Epistemology (CeSEF) and my own development - but with interaction with members of CeSEF - of the Method of Relativised Conceptualisation (MCR).

My research between 1994 and the present day has been constructive. Having realised that modern microphysics acts without first identifying the real entities it wants to study as possible objects of study, I gradually developed from A to Z the first method that makes it possible to study **real entities that - quintessentially - cannot be observed by humans**. It's a method that is itself scientific, and it eliminates an absurd and gaping absence.

A consequence of this method - the method of Relativised Conceptualisation, MCR, is the first factual theory of probability, rooted in the infinite and unknowable Real.

Within MCR and the factual probability theory, I then succeeded in formulating a second, fully acceptable quantum mechanics.

By an unexpected boomerang effect, the results obtained in this way led to an A to Z mathematisation of the Method of Relativised Conceptualisation.

That was the end of my programme.

*-** Hope and a declaration *

of faith *-*

*Hope and a declaration*

of faith

of faith

I take the liberty of expressing the hope that sooner or later it will be possible to work out a deep and coherent connection between MCR and the approaches currently practised in psychology, neurobiology, the cognitive sciences, the social sciences and the computer sciences. If such a junction were to be achieved, our understanding of the ways in which we produce knowledge, techniques and artefacts would take a great leap forward towards a universal unification of human thought.